Table VIII

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1. Deep layer of the plantar muscles of the foot

We can recognize: near the medial border the flexor hallucis brevis which originates from the first cuneiform bone, from the calcaneus and cuboid, and divides into two parts (here the medial one is covered by the tendon of the resected abductor hallucis) which go to the corresponding sesamoid bones of the first metatarsophalangeal joint; in the median part of the foot the abductor hallucis with its oblique head (subdivided into two parts) which springs from the bases of the third and fourth metatarsal bones, and its transverse head, which, from the fifth metatarso-phalangeal joint crosses the distal part of the sole and joins the oblique head at the level of first metatarso-phalangeal joint; near the foot lateral margin is the flexor digiti minimi brevis, stretched from the base of fifth metatarsal bone to the first phalanx of fifth toe. Finally, comprised within the triangle formed by the latter muscle and the two heads of abductor hallucis we can see the interosseous muscles. In this preparation the long plantar ligament (or great ligament of the sole) is clearly visible; it starts from the calcaneus in front of the tuberosity and from the ridge of cuboid bone, bridging the tendon of peroneus longus to insert on the base of metatarsal bones. Under the long ligament one can also notice the plantar calcaneocuboid ligament which separates itself and attaches to the cuboid bone.

2. Middle layer of the plantar muscles of the foot

We can see the plantar muscles laying directly on the deep muscles of previous model. At first we notice the flexor digitorum accessorium (or quadratus plantae) originating, with its two heads, from the calcaneus tuberosity and then inserting on the tendon of flexor digitorum longus which crosses obliquely the sole; we can observe the four lumbrical muscles which arise from the accessory tendons of flexor digitorum long us to insert on the medial side of metatarso-phalangeal joints, where they pass dorsally. In this model the slip that links the tendon of flexor digitorum longus to the tendon of flexor hallucis longus is also shown.
AdminTable VIII