Table II

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Deep dorsal muscles from sacrum to occiput

On the right the sacrospinalis muscle is visible: inferiorly the common mass; superiorly the iliocostalis muscle with its ribbon-shaped tendons that go upward to the angles of the ribs and the muscle longissimus thoracis which superiorly becomes the longissimus cervicis (or transversalis of the neck) and the longissimus capitis (or complexus minor) up to the mastoid process of the temporal bone.

It is also possible to note the small arcuated fascicles of the spinal is (or spinal is thoracis) which appears in the middle of the longissimus thoracis and, the biventer mass of the semispinalis muscle of the head (or complexus major), which goes along the spines of the cervical vertebrae up to the squama of the occipital bone. On the left there are the muscles lying deep to those shown on the right.

One can see in detail: inside the vertebral groove, the oblique fasciculi of the multifidus and the semispinalis cervicis which superiorly goes over the multifidus; between the transverse processes of the vertebrae, the intertransversarii muscles of which the lumbar ones are in two sets; in the intercostal spaces the levatores costarum (or supracostales) of which the inferior ones appear clearly divided into breves and longi levatores.

One can also note the interspinales cervicis, to the side of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the neck, the recti and the obliqui capitis below the cranial base and the scaleni, laterally, that go (in the same way as on the right) downwards to the first and the second rib. Finally, in the lumbar region, attention is drawn to the posterior aspect of the quadratus lumborum, of which the iliolumbares fasciculi are easily recognizable on the surface and deep inside the iliocostales ones.

AdminTable II